Lansing School District Elementary Science
Scope & Sequence for Grade 2

Click on any unit title in the table below to view the pacing guide for that unit.

Grade

Quarters

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

2

Describing Weather

All about Water

Sound

Animals

  Color Codes:  
 
 = Earth and Space Science  
 
 = Physical Science  
 
 = Life Science  

 


 

Lansing School District Elementary Science
Pacing Guides for Grade 2

DRAFT

[ Return to "scope and sequence" chart at top of page. ]         [ Go forward to next unit. ]

           
  Grade:     Second     Science Area:     Earth and Space      
  Quarter:     First     Unit Title:     Describing Weather      
  Unit overview:   Children observe and describe local weather conditions. They keep observations of daily weather and seasonal patterns in a scientific journal. They begin their study of water — as a liquid and as a solid — in terms of its forms as observed in the weather. They learn appropriate safety precautions associated with severe weather.  
  The 4 benchmarks in this unit represent ideas that are portions of 2 more encompassing Michigan Curriculum Framework science standards, as described in these MI-BIG narratives: V.2 The Hydrosphere
V.3 The Atmosphere and Weather
 
           

MCF 2000 Code and Benchmark*

Main Ideas and Connections

Essential^ Tools (T) for Students in Real-world Contexts (R)

Notes for Teachers

V.2.e.1

Describe how water exists on earth in three states.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Water can be described in three states:   solid, liquid, and gas. In this second-grade unit, we focus only on liquids and solids. Liquids are visible, and they can flow. We see liquid water in dew or rain. Solid water is hard and visible. We can see solid water when it freezes to make ice, snow, freezing rain (sleet), and hail. When solid water melts, it begins to flow again. By the fifth grade, children will understand the gaseous state of water.

T:   None.

R:   Examples of solid and liquid water including dew, rain, snow, ice; examples of melting and freezing.

Children often limit their ideas of solids to rigid materials, and of liquids to anything that can be poured. They often do not associate freezing with temperature. Water vapor is hard for them to understand because young children view water that evaporates as disappearing, instead of changing locations. So, the third state of water, gas, is left for the fifth-grade unit on matter, energy, and changes.

V.3.e.1

Describe weather conditions.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

We can describe weather conditions by observing the temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and wind. The air can be described as cold, hot, warm, or cool. Cloud cover can be cloudy, partly cloudy, or foggy. Precipitation can fall as rain, snow, hail, or freezing rain. The wind can be breezy, windy, or calm. Severe weather includes lightning, thunderstorms, tornadoes, high winds, or blizzards.

T:   Student journals, thermometer, wind sock, rain gauge.

R:   Daily changes in local weather and changes within the same day. Examples of severe weather.

Young children often believe that rain occurs when someone opens up reservoirs of water in the clouds to make it rain. They often think of clouds as smoke or cotton. They may think that clouds rain when they bump into each other and explode, rip, or tear. Younger children sometimes think wind is made by moving objects like cars, trees, and clouds. They may also think that cold temperatures make it very windy, while warm breezes are always gentle.

V.3.e.2

Describe seasonal changes in Michigan’s weather.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

We can observe the seasons and describe the weather in each season. In fall, the nights are cool and the days are warm. In winter, it is often snowy or constantly cold, and it gets dark earlier in the evening. In spring, the days start to get longer and warmer, and it is often rainy with thunderstorms. In summer, we have hot days and warm nights, and the days are long.

T:   Student journals.

R:   Temperature trends in each season, and across seasons. Comparisons of the kinds of clothes we wear in each season.

In this unit, we are simply describing the seasonal changes. Children often think that we have seasons because the earth moves closer to or farther away from the sun during the year. Until the upper grades or middle school, they have difficulty understanding how the tilt of the earth influences the concentration of sunlight on different parts of the earth, and accounts for the seasons. So, explaining the seasons is not the focus in second grade.

V.3.e.3

Explain appropriate safety precautions during severe weather.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

During severe weather, safety precautions should be taken. When we hear tornado sirens, or radio and T.V. broadcasts for severe weather watches or warnings, we can find safe locations until the severe weather is past.

T:   Radio and TV broadcasts, weather forecasts in the daily paper.

R:   Examples of local severe weather including tornadoes, thunderstorms, and blizzards. Examples of local community safety precautions including weather bulletins and tornado sirens.

 

 


 

Lansing School District Elementary Science
Pacing Guides for Grade 2

DRAFT

[ Go back to previous unit. ]         [ Return to "scope and sequence" chart at top of page. ]         [ Go forward to next unit. ]

           
  Grade:     Second     Science Area:     Earth and Space      
  Quarter:     Second     Unit Title:     All about Water      
  Unit overview:   Children investigate the solid and liquid states of water and how temperature is related to the state of water, as related to the different forms of precipitation they have studied in the describing weather unit. They explore what happens to rain water after it falls and how this is related to changes in earth’s surface. They investigate how we get the water we use, and how we use water, and examine the need for conservation of and protection of sources of fresh water.  
  The 7 benchmarks in this unit represent ideas that are portions of 3 more encompassing Michigan Curriculum Framework science standards, as described in these MI-BIG narratives: IV.2 Changes in Matter
V.1 The Geosphere
V.2 The Hydrosphere
 
           

MCF 2000 Code and Benchmark*

Main Ideas and Connections

Essential^ Tools (T) for Students in Real-world Contexts (R)

Notes for Teachers

V.2.e.1

Describe how water exists on earth in three states.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

In second grade, we focus on water in the solid and liquid states. Water in the environment can exist in the solid state (as snow, hail, or ice on lakes, rivers, or land) and in the liquid state (as rain or dew, as well as in puddles, lakes, streams, and rivers).

By the fifth grade, children will understand all three states of water:   solid, liquid, and gas.

T:   Thermometer.

R:   Examples of water in solid and liquid states, including dew, rain, snow, ice, evidence of moisture in the air, such as "fog" on cold bathroom mirrors; examples of melting, freezing, and evaporating

Water in its solid forms is less obvious than the liquid form that is central to everyday experience. Students can, however, watch liquid water freeze in an ice cube tray and observe the melting of snow and ice. It is much more difficult for children to understand how liquid water evaporates into the air, because children often believe that the water simply "disappears," even in middle school. Even when they see water drops on the outside of a cold glass, they may think the liquid inside "leaked" to the outside. This is the reason why we focus on water in its solid and liquid forms in this unit; water in its gaseous state is addressed in the fifth-grade unit.

V.2.e.2

Trace the path that rain water follows after it falls.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Rain, falling locally from sky, collects on the earth’s surface, runs off downhill into streams and rivers, and soaks into the ground. In cities, gutters and street drains collect the water in underground systems that eventually empty into streams, rivers, or lakes.

T:   Maps showing local surface water and watersheds, maps that children make of the areas around the school.

R:   Examples of water flowing locally including gutters, drains, streams, and wetlands.

Children may be aware that water from rain or melting snow collects in puddles and either runs down the drains, soaks into the ground, or dries up. However, where the water goes after going down the drain or soaking in is much less obvious. They may have trouble believing that the water actually gets to rivers or lakes some distance away.

V.2.e.3

Identify sources of water and its uses.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Water is used for sanitation, drinking, cleaning, and food preparation. We also use it for recreation, and for transportation and industry. Almost all human activity requires the use of some water, for example, irrigating crops, transporting barges on rivers, generating electricity.

Drinking water is obtained from below the surface by digging wells, and from surface sources such as rivers or lakes.

T:   Maps or documents showing local sources of drinking water.

R:   Local sources of drinking water including wells, rivers, and lakes. Local examples of water use, e.g. car wash, swimming pools, fire hydrants, cleaning, watering lawn, bathing.

Young students are most familiar with the water they use in their daily lives for drinking, cleanliness, or recreation. We may need to encourage them to ask questions, such as, "Where does our water comes from?" They may observe it coming out of the faucet, but have difficulty tracing it further back than that.

V.1.e.6

Demonstrate ways to conserve natural resources, reduce pollution through reduction, reuse, and recycling of manufactured materials.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Although there seems to be plenty of water, much of it is not suitable for human use without special treatment. In times of low rainfall, there can be shortages of useable water even in Michigan. People usually have to pay to have water supplied to their houses and businesses.

Water use in homes can be reduced by being careful and through use of appliances that reduce the flow of water.

Pollution can make water sources unusable or more expensive to use. Proper disposal of harmful materials can protect our water supply.

T:   Records of water use for the school and community.

R:   Water use in school and at home. News items of local water pollution or programs to prevent or repair pollution.

The need to conserve water may not be clear to students because it is often assumed to be plentiful and easily replaced, especially here in Michigan where we are surrounded by the Great Lakes.

This unit deals primarily with water as a resource. Other natural resources are dealt with in other units.

V.1.e.1

Describe major features of the earth’s surface.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

In this unit, we focus on bodies of water only. The earth’s surface is different at different locations in Michigan. The way the earth looks where we are may not be the way it looks in other locations. Michigan has many different surface features including bodies of water like waterfalls, the Great Lakes, lakes, and rivers.

By the fifth grade, children will understand the full range of Earth’s surface features, including mountains, deserts, plains, and valleys.

T:   Maps of Lansing, and Michigan. Children’s maps of the area around the school.

R:   Michigan surface features:   waterfalls, the Great Lakes, rivers.

Children commonly think that the earth is flat, or that we live inside of a hollow sphere, so the idea of a "rounded" earth’s surface is difficult for them to understand, and left for the 5th grade astronomy unit.

See also EH — V.2.e.2.

V.1.e.3

Describe natural changes in the earth’s surface.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

In this unit, we focus on changes made by rainwater and flowing water. Natural changes in the earth’s surface can be slow and gradual processes like erosion by water or glaciers. Or they can be rapid changes caused by floods. These slow or fast changes lead to valleys, cracks in the surface, and movement of materials like sand, clay, boulders, and gravel.

By the fifth grade, children will understand other slow and gradual changes due to wind and gravity, as well as rapid changes caused by volcanoes and earthquakes.

T:   Pictures and footage of various natural disasters. Journals for recording observations of changes.

R:   Places around the school where erosion has occurred, such as gullies formed in downhill gravel areas. Cracks in the asphalt or sidewalk. Spring flooding in the Midwest. Changes in sand dunes due to water

Children believe the world today is as it always was. For example, they think mountains have always been in the places they are now, or lakes and rivers have always been in the places they are today. They often think of change as limited to dramatic changes, as in natural disasters. They may need help understanding the concept of slow and gradual change over long periods of time.

IV.2.e.1

Describe common physical changes in matter including size, shape, state (e.g., melting, freezing, evaporating), and dissolving.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

In this unit, we focus on changes of state from solid to liquid and back again, for water only. Everything we experience that takes up space and has mass is called matter. Matter can be changed in a number of ways using a variety of processes. For example, we can change the shape (e.g., by pouring into another container), or state of matter (e.g., by heating — to cause melting — or cooling — to cause freezing). All of these kinds of change are "physical changes" because — even though the matter may change shape, or state — it is still the same substance. For example, water from a melting ice cube is the same substance before and after freezing.

By fifth grade, children will understand that we can find water in three states of matter:   solid, liquid, and gas.

T:   Heating devices (e.g., stoves, hot plates, and hair dryers).

      Cooling devices (e.g., freezers, refrigerators, proximity with ice in a closed container).

      Journals to record findings with words and pictures.

R:   Changes in size or shape of familiar objects, such as making snowballs or ice cubes; changes in the state of water or other substances, such as freezing of ice cream, or ponds; puddles drying.

Note that "patterns of change" is one of the seven "connecting themes" identified for attention by Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for Science Education (pp. 145-146) that can receive emphasis in this unit.

In this unit, the focus is on observable examples of more familiar, physical changes. Determining whether or not a change is a "physical change" depends on whether or not you have the same substance before and after the change. Students have learned that substances are identified by their properties. However, some properties of substances (e.g., the state of matter) can be changed by physical changes, and so children sometimes have difficulty understanding that ice and snow are still water, because their properties are so different from liquid water. They may believe that snow and ice "turn into" water, rather than consisting of water themselves.

Understanding which properties scientists use to distinguish physical changes from other kinds of changes will be addressed in middle school when students begin to consider matter at the particle level. Thus, molecular level accounts of physical changes, along with chemical and nuclear changes should be reserved for study in middle and high school (see for example benchmarks IV.2.m.1-3, IV.2.h.1-5). In the meantime, we will need to explain to our students that "by definition" physical changes are those that involve only changes in the size, the shape, or the state of matter.

See also the "earth science" benchmark V.2.e.1, which deals specifically with the three states of water.

 


 

Lansing School District Elementary Science
Pacing Guides for Grade 2

DRAFT

[ Go back to previous unit. ]         [ Return to "scope and sequence" chart at top of page. ]         [ Go forward to next unit. ]

           
  Grade:     Second     Science Area:     Physical      
  Quarter:     Third     Unit Title:     Sound      
  Unit overview:   Students explore a variety of sounds and how they are made. Students learn that sounds travel and exist separately from their sources. Students also distinguish between the two main characteristics of sounds:   loudness and pitch. Students create their own sound-making devices (e.g., musical instruments) and learn to manipulate both the loudness and the pitch of a sound. In addition, students describe some of the kinds of motions associated with sounds and learn that sound is a form of energy.  
  The 4 benchmarks in this unit represent ideas that are portions of 3 more encompassing Michigan Curriculum Framework science standards, as described in these MI-BIG narratives: IV.1 Matter and Energy
IV.3 Motion of Objects
IV.4 Waves and Vibrations
 
           

MCF 2000 Code and Benchmark*

Main Ideas and Connections

Essential^ Tools (T) for Students in Real-world Contexts (R)

Notes for Teachers

IV.1.e.3

Identify forms of energy associated with common phenomena.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

In second grade, we study sound as a kind of energy. Energy is needed to cause changes. This can involve changing the shape or state of matter, or changing the speed or direction of an object’s motion.

By fifth grade, children will understand that we have a variety of names for the different kinds of energy, for example:   sound, light, motion, electricity, heat, and food energy. The name we use depends on the contexts in which and the senses by which we experience them. For example, we hear sound, we see light, and we feel heat. However, scientists use the concept of energy for all these events because they each involve some kind of change.

T:   None.

R:   Selected examples of things that make sound, such as the human voice, animal sounds, tuning forks, thunder, doorbells, radios, and musical instruments.

The variety of changes caused by energy is so diverse that they often appear unrelated. This makes the abstract scientific notion of energy difficult for students to learn. Students need multiple opportunities to experience and investigate each of the forms of energy before they can be expected to see what they share in common. In this unit, students focus their attention on sound.

For information about student learning experiences with other kinds of energy in Grade 2, see the following science units (and benchmarks):

• grade 3 "Shadows and Light" (IV.4.e.3-4 about light),

• grade 3 "Motion, Force, and Simple Machines" (IV.3.e.1 about energy of motion),

• grade 4 "Simple Electric Circuits" (IV.1.e.4 about electricity),

• grade 4 "Interdependence of Plants and Animals" (III.2.e.4 and III.5.e.2 about energy from food), and

• grade 5 "Matter, Energy, and Changes" (IV.2.e.1 about heat).

IV.3.e.1

Describe or compare motions of common objects in terms of speed and direction.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

When matter moves repeatedly back and forth, we call that kind of motion "vibrating." Rapid vibration of matter creates sound that we can hear. Sound can travel through whatever matter (e.g., a tabletop, water, air) is next to the vibrating object that is its source. The directions in which a sound can travel can be described as east, west, north, south, up, down, left, or right. We can use words like fast, faster, slow, or slower to compare the speed at which a sound travels with the speed of other moving objects. Sound typically spreads out or travels very quickly in all directions away from its source.

T:   A compass for determining direction.

      Tables and journals to record findings with words and pictures.

R:   Motions of familiar vibrating objects including human vocal cords, doorbells, tuning forks, speakers in audio equipment (e.g., radios, CD players, televisions) and a variety of musical instruments.

Students began describing the locations and motions of familiar objects in K-1. The study of sound in this unit provides opportunities to observe and describe a particular kind of motion:   vibrations. Everyday use of the word "speed" in these contexts can be confusing if it is used to refer both to the rate of vibration of an object and the speed at which sound travels away from its source. Some of this confusion may be avoided by referring to how rapidly the material is vibrating and the "speed" at which sound travels.

Since measurements of speed — which involve ratios of distance and time — can be difficult for second-grade students, it is not important at this time for students to measure or learn the numeric speed of sound. However, FYI, sound travels approximately 330 meters per second through air. Also, matter must vibrate at least 20 times per second to make an audible sound.

IV.4.e.2

Explain how sounds are made.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

All sounds are created by vibrations of matter. In order for a vibration to occur, a force must be applied to the object (e.g., strumming a guitar string). The size of a vibration can be described as being large or small. The rate of vibration can be described as being fast or slow. The sound that is created by an object’s vibration then exists in and spreads out through the air (or other surrounding matter), separate from the object or source of the sound. When these traveling vibrations reach our ears, they cause our eardrums to vibrate, and we "hear" the sound.

T:   Journals to record ideas with words and pictures.

R:   Sound from common sources — especially those with which the vibrations can easily be felt or seen — such as musical instruments, speakers of radios or CD players, animal sounds, door bells, thunder, tuning forks, and human voices.

Sound is one variety of wave motion, but identifying it as a wave is not a focus of the second-grade unit. In this unit, students learn that vibrating matter is always at the source of any sound. Careful use of the words "sound" and "source" will help students distinguish sounds from the objects that make them. For example, in everyday language we may say, "I hear the violin," when actually we are hearing the sounds that the violin makes. Making the distinction between the vibrating object that is the source of a sound and the sound that is produced by it is a sufficient challenge for many second-grade students. Further understanding of the nature of the sound waves that spread out through air (or other media) from a sound’s source is addressed in middle school benchmarks (see for example benchmark IV.4.m.1), as is more technical vocabulary like "sound wave," "amplitude."

IV.4.e.1

Describe sounds in terms of their properties.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Loudness and pitch are two properties that help us to compare different kinds of sound. The loudness of a sound depends on how much force is applied to the source to make it vibrate. A large vibration makes a loud sound; a small vibration makes a soft sound. Louder sounds have more energy than softer sounds. Sounds typically become softer as we move farther away from their source. Another term for loudness is volume. The pitch of a sound depends on how rapidly the source vibrates. A very fast rate of vibration is heard as a high pitch; a slow rate of vibration is heard as a low pitch.

T:   A decibel meter (e.g., as can be found on many tape recorders) or a sound probe connected to a computer.

    Tables and journals to record findings with words and pictures.

R:   Sound from common sources — especially those with which the vibrations can easily be felt or seen — such as musical instruments, speakers of radios or CD players, animal sounds, door bells, thunder, tuning forks, and human voices.

Many students have difficulty distinguishing between loudness and pitch. This is probably because the everyday meanings of the words we use in referring to these properties are different from their scientific meanings. For example, we may describe adjusting the loudness of a radio as turning the volume (i.e., the loudness) "up higher" or "down lower." Second-grade students should learn that when they describe sounds precisely, the terms "high" and "low" refer to a different property of sound from "loud" and "soft," and they should use those terms appropriately in describing real sounds.

For your own information, a very fast rate of vibration (i.e., thousands of times per second) is heard as a high pitch; a slow rate of vibration (i.e., between 20 and 500 times per second) is heard as a low pitch. Another term for rate of vibration — although not one to be used with second-grade students — is "frequency."

 


 

Lansing School District Elementary Science
Pacing Guides for Grade 2

DRAFT

[ Go back to previous unit. ]         [ Return to "scope and sequence" chart at top of page. ]

           
  Grade:     Second     Science Area:     Life      
  Quarter:     Fourth     Unit Title:     Animals      
  Unit overview:   Children are fascinated by animals of all kinds. In this unit, they observe, compare and contrast several different animals. They observe how animals’ body parts help them meet their needs for life. They watch as animals grow from the young forms to the adult forms. They compare the young and the adults to see if they have similar characteristics, such as kind of teeth or fur. And they examine how an environment can provide what animals need to live.  
  The 6 benchmarks in this unit represent ideas that are portions of 3 more encompassing Michigan Curriculum Framework science standards, as described in these MI-BIG narratives: III.2 Organization of Living Things
III.3 Heredity
III.5 Ecosystems
 
           

MCF 2000 Code and Benchmark*

Main Ideas and Connections

Essential^ Tools (T) for Students in Real-world Contexts (R)

Notes for Teachers

III.2.e.1

Explain characteristics and functions of observable body parts in a variety of animals.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Animals have body parts that we can observe. These parts — such as legs, beaks, claws, fur, and quills — may help them move, support their bodies in position, get their food, keep warm, or defend themselves from other animals.

T:   Science journals for recording observations of animals and their body parts.

R:   Animals with backbones, such as humans, cows, sparrows, and goldfish. Animals without backbones, such as spiders, crayfish, and insects.

Children may attribute human-like intentions and desires to animals, for example, birds have beaks because they "want to" eat seeds. Use of terms like "vertebrate" and "invertebrate" are left for middle school grade levels.

III.2.e.2

Compare and contrast (K-2) and classify (3-5) familiar organisms on the basis of observable physical characteristics.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Some animals are alike in their body parts, like feathers and shells, and some are different. We can compare them and group them together by looking at the body parts that are similar or different.

T:   Use of classroom charts and Venn diagrams to show groupings of animals that are similar or not.

R:   Animals that look similar — for example, snakes, worms, and millipedes. Animals that look different — for example, birds and snakes.

Children may have a narrow view of "animals" and believe that those that do not resemble mammals (for example, having fur and four legs) are not animals. For example, they may not believe that birds and insects are animals. They may believe that only large, common mammals such as cows and elephants are animals.

III.2.e.3

Describe life cycles of familiar organisms.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Animals may start life as an egg or young animal, then grow into an adult animal. As an adult, animals can lay more eggs or have more young. They may go through several stages, such as a larva and pupa, and look quite different in each stage.

T:   Hand lenses.

R:   Common animals such as butterflies, grasshoppers, frogs, and chickens.

Children may believe that inside the egg is a complete miniature adult, instead of an immature form. They may believe that an egg is not alive, because it does not move around.

III.2.e.4

Compare and contrast food, energy, and environmental needs of selected organisms.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

In second grade, we focus on food and environmental needs of animals. Animals need food, air, water and space in a habitat. Some animals eat the same kinds of food (for example, fruits), and others eat other kinds of food (for example, insects).

By the fourth grade and fifth grades, children will understand that animals obtain their energy from food.

T:   Use of classroom charts to compare animals on several common needs for life, such as food or shelter.

R:   Aquarium or terrarium life, such as guppy, goldfish, and snail. Local woods or ponds.

Energy is a fairly difficult concept to understand, even for high school students. So, we do not expect children in second grade to understand animals’ needs for energy or their uses of energy.

See LEC-III.5.

III.3.e.1

Give evidence that characteristics are passed from parents to young.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

Young animals often look like their parents. They may have the same hair or eye color, the same color feathers, the same shape beak, the same kind of feet.

T:   Classroom charts with children’s drawings showing how young animals change as they grow older.

R:   Examples of mature and immature organisms, such as dogs/puppies, cats/kittens, mealworms/beetles, caterpillars/butterflies, and chicks/hen.

Young children may think that male parents pass on characteristics to male young, and female parents to female young. Explanations of how characteristics are passed from adults to young are addressed in high school grades.

III.5.e.3

Design systems that encourage growing of particular animals.

MI-CLiMB Benchmark Clarification

We can design spaces that have what animals need to live. We need to make sure that in this habitat, they have food, water, shelter, and air that they can use to meet their needs for life.

T:   Aquarium, terrarium for observing animals. Bottle biology systems.

R:   Ecosystems managed by humans, including farms, ranches, gardens, lawns, potted plants.

Children sometimes think that humans take care of all animals and plants.

 


 

*   You can download your own copy of the Michigan Curriculum Framework (2000) science benchmarks -- either as a MS-Word or a PDF file -- at:   http://cdp.mde.state.mi.us/Science/default.html#Benchmarks

 


 

^   A number of "tools" with which children should become familiar as part of their science education and general life experiences are listed in our 2-5 science pacing guides. Several of these are italicized, which indicates that they are also designated within the Michigan Curriculum Framework (2000) science benchmarks as "tools" that it is essential that all students have opportunities to use. Reference to such "tools" and their use therefore can also be expected to be included in some MEAP questions.

 


 

Last updated:   3/3/2002 by RTSmith